Physical stresses

Physical stresses arise through unfavourable body postures, rapid or sustained body movements, high force exertion, the handling of loads, or a combination of these aspects. The stresses manifest themselves in strain upon the muscles, locomotor apparatus and spine. Machines and their control stations should be engineered such that stress factors are reduced to a minimum. A risk assessment assists in estimation of a work situation. Corresponding information can be found in the EN ISO 12100 standard and the EN 1005 series of standards.

Location of control actuators

Correct positioning of control actuators on machines is important in order for them to be reached and to be operated safely and comfortably. Attention should be paid here to design in consideration of anthropometric aspects and to the conditions of movement. Relevant information concerning the positioning of control actuators is summarized for example in EN 894-4.

Hand-held control unit for machine tools

Fernbedienung die positionsunabhängige Maschinensteuerung ermöglicht © Michael Hüter

Hand-held control unit for machine tools The remote control of the machine is a miniature, cable-linked control module that combines... more

Exertion of force and handling of loads

EXPRESSO t2m mit Sensorgriff ermöglicht Materialtransport ohne große Kraftanstrengung © Michael Hüter

Exertion of force and handling of loads The touch2move control concept implemented by Expresso is a universal control system suitable for a... more

Tablet PC for process control

Durch den automatischen Rohmaterialwechsel werden Mitarbeiter vor Schadstoffen geschützt © Michael Hüter

Tablet PC for process control A simple menu control on the iPad, which is docked on the machine, is used for process control and... more


Visibility conditions

Visibility is important for the viewing of relevant areas of work, such as the inside of a machine tool or the area in front of a forklift truck. Constrained visibility can lead to unfavourable body postures or elevated mental stress.

Driver's rotating control station

Gabelstapler mit 180 Grad drehbarem Fahrerstand verhindern gesundheitsschädliche Stellungen der Halswirbelsäule und des Rumpfes © Michael Hüter

Driver's rotating control station Linde's driver's rotating control stations can be fitted to larger models of forklift. By releasing... more

Tilting driver's cab

Schubmaststapler mit kippbarer Kabine um Belastung für Genick zu vermindern © Michael Hüter

Tilting driver's cab A tilting driver's cab assists in reducing the necessary angle of head inclination. Such a cab... more

Variable driver's and operator's station

Sitz Crown TSP 7000 Hochregalstapler © Michael Hüter

Variable driver's and operator's station On Crown high-rack order pickers, the driver's control station can be adjusted to the needs of the... more


Motional range

The freedom of movement that a worker has at his or her workplace is important not only for reasons of comfort; insufficient room to move can lead to unfavourable body postures and may even cause accidents.

Vertical open machining concept

Offenes, vertikales Betriebskonzept ermöglicht Hilfsmitteleinsatz  bei großvolumigen Bauteilen © Michael Hüter

Vertical open machining concept The vertical design assures open access to the workpiece holder from the front and from above. For... more

Telescopic loading floors

LKE Kit-Wagen mit herausfahrbahren/wegklappbaren Regalböden für erleichtertes Be- und Entladen © Michael Hüter

Telescopic loading floors The LKE 800 E4.MAV range of shelf trolleys are equipped with withdrawable shelves. These shelves can... more

Diagonal door opening

Über-Eck Türöffnungen vergrößern die Durchgangsöffnung und vermindern ungünstige Körperhaltungen © Michael Hüter

Diagonal door opening On machines in the MVC Spinner range, the safety doors are located not on the front of the machine,... more


Exertion of force and handling of loads

Load handling is an issue wherever heavy weights need be transported. High forces may also have to be exerted during work, for example for the opening and closing of guards on machine tools. This places stress upon the human musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. In order to reduce the stress on workers, facilities must be fitted to machines to reduce the forces to be exerted and the loads to be handled. Relevant information on risk assessment of the forces to be exerted and loads to be handled can be found in the EN 1005-2 and EN 1005-3 standards.

Manual force control for manipulators

Balancer mit Handkraftsteuerung von ZASCHESitec © Michael Hüter

Manual force control for manipulators Where the height is controlled by detection of hand force, sensors are integrated directly into the... more

Material: plastic

Kunststoffhubwagen I-Ton sind erheblich leichter und reduzieren somit den Kraftaufwand © Michael Hüter

Material: plastic The use of new types of material enabled the weight of the pallet truck presented here to be reduced... more

Platform hoist

Höhenverstellbarer Plattformhub ermöglicht sicheren Stand sowie Zugang zu höher gelegenen Waren © Michael Hüter

Platform hoist The platform hoist on the order picker raises the worker at the driver's platform to a height of... more